Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrum
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Information on the MiG-29 Fulcrum
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: МиГ-29 ) (NATO reporting name "Fulcrum") is a fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. Developed in the 1970s by the Mikoyan design bureau, it entered service in 1983 and remains in use by the Russian Air Force as well as in many other nations.
The history of the MiG-29, like that of the larger Sukhoi Su-27 'Flanker', started in 1969 when the Soviet Union learned of the U.S. Air Force's 'FX' program, which resulted in the F-15 Eagle. The Soviet leadership soon realized that the new American fighter would represent a serious technological advantage over all existing Soviet fighters. The MiG-21 'Fishbed' was agile by the standards of its day, but had deficiencies in range, armament, and growth potential. The MiG-23 'Flogger', developed to match the F-4 Phantom II, was fast and had more space for fuel and equipment, but lacked in maneuverability and dogfighting ability. What was needed was a better-balanced fighter with both good agility and sophisticated systems. In response, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyi Frontovoi Istrebitel (PFI, roughly "Advanced Tactical Fighter"). Specifications were extremely ambitious, calling for long range, good short-field performance (including the ability to use austere runways), excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, and heavy armament. The aerodynamic design for the new aircraft was largely carried out by TsAGI, the Russian aerodynamics institute, in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau.
However, in 1971 the Soviets determined that the PFI aircraft would be too expensive to procure in the quantities needed, and divided the requirement into the TPFI (Tyazholyi Perspektivnyi Frontovoi Istrebitel, "Heavy Advanced Tactical Fighter") and the LPFI (Legkiy Perspektivnyi Frontovoi Istrebitel, "Lightweight Advanced Tactical Fighter") programs, the latter paralleling the contemporary USAF decision that led to the "Lightweight Fighter" program and the F-16 Fighting Falcon and YF-17 Cobra. The heavy fighter remained with Sukhoi, resulting in the Su-27 'Flanker', while the lightweight fighter went to Mikoyan. Detailed design work on the resultant Product 9, designated MiG-29A, began in 1974, with the first flight taking place on October 6 1977. The pre-production aircraft was first spotted by United States reconnaissance satellites in November of that year; it was dubbed Ram-L because it was observed at the Zhukovsky flight test center near the town of Ramenskoye. Early Western speculations suggested that the Ram-L was very similar in appearance to the YF-17 Cobra and powered by afterburning Tumansky R-25 turbojets.
Despite program delays caused by the loss of two prototypes in engine-related accidents, the MiG-29B production version entered service in August 1983 at the Kubinka air base. State acceptance trials where completed in 1984, and deliveries began the same year to the Soviet Frontal Aviation. It was given the NATO reporting name "Fulcrum-A" because the pre-production MiG-29A, which should have logically received this designation, remained unknown in the West at that time. The MiG-29B was widely exported in downgraded versions known as MiG-29B 9-12A and MiG-29B 9-12B (for Warsaw Pact and non-Warsaw Pact nations, respectively), with less capable avionics and no capability for delivering nuclear weapons. Total production was about 840 aircraft. The MiG-29 was first publicly seen in the West during a visit to Finland in July 1986. Two were displayed at the Farnborough Air Show in Britain in September 1988. Western observers were impressed by its apparent capability and exceptional agility, but found fault with the excessive smoke generated by its Klimov powerplants.
MiG-29 export customers have included Algeria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Eritrea, East Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Syria, and Yemen. The ex-Soviet republics of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were left with large numbers of aircraft after the disintegration of the Soviet Union; some remain in service, others were mothballed or ? like the 34 aircraft originally held by Moldova ? have been sold abroad.
Refined versions of the MiG-29 with improved avionics were fielded by the Soviet Union, but Mikoyan's multi-role variants, including a carrier-based version designated MiG-29K, were never produced in large numbers. In the post-Soviet era, MiG-29 development was frustrated by the Mikoyan bureau's apparent lack of political clout compared to rival Sukhoi. Some more advanced versions are still being pursued for export, and updates of existing Russian aircraft are likely. New versions of the plane called MiG-29SMT and MiG-29M1/M2 are being developed. Furthermore, development of a carrier version, the MiG-29K, has been resumed for the Indian Navy's INS Vikramaditya aircraft carrier (formerly the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov). This version was originally meant for Soviet service onboard the Admiral Kuznetsov, but the bigger Sukhoi Su-33 was preferred instead.
The Soviet Union did not assign official "popular names" to its aircraft, although unofficial nicknames were common. Unusually, Soviet pilots found the MiG-29's NATO reporting name, "Fulcrum", to be a flattering description of the aircraft's intended purpose, and it is often called "Fulcrum" in Russian service. This was in contrast to previous names such as "Backfire" and "Careless" (for the "Tupolev Tu-22M" and "Tupolev Tu-154", respectively). 
Because it was developed from the same basic parameters laid out by TsAGI for the original PFI, the MiG-29 is aerodynamically broadly similar to the Sukhoi Su-27, but with some notable differences. It is built largely out of aluminum with some composite materials. It has a mid-mounted swept wing with blended leading-edge root extensions (LERXs) swept at around 40?. There are swept tailplanes and two vertical fins, mounted on booms outboard of the engines. Automatic slats are mounted on the leading edges of the wings; they are four-segment on early models and five-segment on some later variants. On the trailing edge, there are maneuvering flaps and wingtip ailerons.
The MiG-29 has hydraulic controls and a SAU-451 three-axis autopilot but, unlike the Su-27, does not have a fly-by-wire control system. Nonetheless, it is very agile, with excellent instantaneous and sustained turn performance, high alpha capability, and a general resistance to spins. The airframe is stressed for 9-g (88 m/s?) maneuvers. The controls have "soft" limiters to prevent the pilot from exceeding the g and alpha limits, but these can be disabled manually. In joint USAF-Luftwaffe exercises, the downgraded MiG-29 9-12A that the Luftwaffe fielded defeated the F-16 Fighting Falcon in close-range combat almost every time using its highly practical infra-red search and track (IRST) sensor and helmet-mounted sight, together with the Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name AA-11 'Archer') missile.
The MiG-29 has two widely spaced Klimov RD-33 turbofan engines, each rated at 50.0 kN dry and 81.3 kN in afterburner. The space between the engines generates lift, thereby reducing effective wing loading, to improve maneuverability. The engines are fed through wedge-type intakes fitted under the LERXs, which have variable ramps to allow high-Mach speeds. As an adaptation to rough-field operations, they can be closed almost completely for takeoff, landing and low-speed flying, thereby preventing ingestion of ground debris. In those cases, the engines receive air through louvers on the LERXs which open automatically when intakes are closed. Later variants replace these dorsal louvers with mesh screens in the main intakes, similar to those fitted to the Su-27.
Range and fuel system
The internal fuel capacity of the original MiG-29B is only 4,365 liters distributed between six fuel tanks, four in the fuselage and one in each wing. As a result, the aircraft has a very limited range in line with the original Soviet requirements for a point-defense fighter. For longer flights, this can be supplemented by a 1,500 liter drop tank carried on the centerline and, on later production batches, by two underwing drop tanks, each capable of 1,150 liters. In addition, a small number of MiG-29s have been fitted with port-side inflight refueling probes, allowing much longer flight times by using a probe-and-drogue system. Some MiG-29B airframes have been upgraded to the "Fatback" configuration (MiG-29 9-13), which adds a dorsal-mounted internal fuel tank. Advanced variants, such as the MiG-35, can be fitted with a conformal fuel tank on the dorsal spine, although none of them have yet entered service.
The pilot is seated on a Zvezda K-36DM zero-zero ejection seat which has had impressive performance in emergency escapes.
The cockpit has conventional dials, with a head-up display (HUD) and a Shchel-3UM helmet-mounted sight, but no HOTAS ("hands-on-throttle-and-stick") capability. Emphasis seems to have been placed on making the cockpit similar to the earlier MiG-23 and other Soviet aircraft for ease of conversion, rather than on ergonomics. Nonetheless, the MiG-29 does have substantially better visibility than most previous Russian jet fighters, thanks to a high-mounted bubble canopy. Upgraded models introduce "glass cockpits" with modern liquid-crystal (LCD) multi-function displays (MFDs) and true HOTAS.
The baseline MiG-29B has a Phazotron RLPK-29 (Radiolokatsyonnyi Pritselnyi Kompleks) radar attack system which includes the coherent pulse-Doppler N019 (Sapfir 29; NATO reporting name 'Slot Back') look-down/shoot-down coherent pulse-Doppler radar and a Ts100.02-02 digital computer. The original N-019A radar unit, which was supposed to put the MiG-29 on par with its Western counterparts, was a disappointment to the Soviet VVS. It had serious shortcomings in beyond-visual-range (BVR) engagements. Tracking range against a fighter-sized target was only about 70 km (38 nm) in the frontal aspect and 35 km (19 nm) in the rear aspect. Range against bomber-sized targets was roughly double. Ten targets could be displayed in search mode, but only one could be tracked at a time for semi-active radar-homing (SARH) missile guidance. The signal processor also had trouble with ground clutter, and ranges in the look-down mode were consequently further reduced. It was also quite susceptible to electronic jamming. These problems meant the MiG-29 was not able to reliably utilize the new Vympel R-27R (NATO reporting name AA-10 'Alamo') long-range SARH missile at its maximum ranges.
The N-019 was further compromised by Phazotron designer Adolf Tolkachev's betrayal of the radar to the CIA, for which he was executed in 1986. In response to all of these problems, the Soviets hastily developed a modified N019M Topaz radar for the upgraded MiG-29S aircraft. However, the VVS was reportedly still not satisfied with the performance of the system and demanded another upgrade. The latest upgraded aircraft offer the N-010 Zhuk-M, which has a planar array antenna rather than a dish, improving range, and a much superior processing ability, with multiple target engagement capability and compatibility with the Vympel R-77 (or RVV-AE) (NATO reporting name AA-12 'Adder') air-to-air missile. A useful feature the MiG-29 shares with the Su-27 is the S-31E2 KOLS, a combined laser rangefinder and IRST in an 'eyeball' mount forward of the cockpit canopy. This can be slaved to the radar or used independently, and provides exceptional gun-laying accuracy.
Armament for the MiG-29 includes a single GSh-30-1 30 mm cannon in the port wing root. This originally had a 150-round magazine, which was reduced to 100 rounds in later variants. Original production MiG-29B aircraft cannot fire the cannon when carrying a centerline fuel tank as it blocks the shell ejection port. This issue was corrected in the MiG-29S and later versions. Three pylons are provided under each wing (four in some variants), for a total of six (or eight). The inboard pylons can carry either a 1,150 liter (300 US gallon) fuel tank, one R-27 (AA-10 'Alamo') medium-range air-to-air missile, or unguided bombs or rockets. Some Soviet aircraft could carry a single nuclear bomb on the port inboard station. The outer pylons usually carry R-73 (AA-11 'Archer') dogfight missiles, although some users still retain the older R-60 (AA-8 'Aphid'). A single 1,500 liter (400 US gallon) tank can be fitted to the centerline, between the engines, for ferry flights, but this position is not used for combat stores. The original MiG-29B can carry general-purpose bombs and unguided rocket pods, but not precision-guided munitions. Upgraded models have provision for laser-guided and electro-optical bombs, as well as air-to-surface missiles.
A two-seat trainer version of the MiG-29 was developed, designated MiG-29UB (Fulcrum-B). The second seat is fitted with a HUD repeater and a periscope, as well as a second Zvezda K-36DM ejection seat. This variant has no radar, substituting it for a module which allows the instructor to simulate various combat situations and emergencies. Although the "UB" designation (for Uchebno-Boevoi, "trainer-combat") suggests that the MiG-29UB is combat-capable, its limited range and lack of radar and gun make that unlikely. There are upgrade options available for this model which include fitting a radar for enhanced fighting ability.
The MiG-29S (Fulcrum-C) is virtually identical in external appearance to older "Fatback" MiG-29B airframes. Differences start with the improvements in the flight control system. Four new computers provide better stability augmentation and controllability with an increase of 2? in angle of attack (AoA). Its improved mechanical-hydraulic flight control system allows for greater control surface deflections. The MiG-29S added a dorsal 'hump' to the upper fuselage (earning it the nickname "Fatback" in service) which was originally believed to be for additional fuel, but in fact, most of its volume is used for the new L-203BE Gardenyia-1 ECM system. Internal fuel is only slightly increased by 75 liters, making the aircraft's fuel fraction about 0.27, thus comparable to that of the F-16. It can also carry 1150 liter (304 US gal, 2000 lb) drop tanks under each wing and the traditional centerline tank. Inboard underwing hardpoints are upgraded to allow for a tandem pylon arrangement for a larger payload of 4000 kg (8820 lb). Overall maximum gross weight has been raised to 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
In the MiG-29S, the GSh-30-1 cannon has had its expended round ejector port modified to allow for firing while the centerline tank is still attached. As with the 'Fulcrum A', there are six underwing hardpoints, but these can be expanded to eight. The MiG-29S improvement would also allow for new missiles like the R-27E (AA-10 'Alamo') which has 1.5 times the range of the basic model R-27 due to its larger rocket motor. These long-burn variants have previously been only found on the Su-27 Flanker. The new hardpoint configuration also adds the capability to mount the new R-77 (AA-12 'Adder') active-radar long-range air-to-air missile.
Initially, the avionics of the MiG-29S 'Fulcrum-C' only added a new IRST sighting system combined with a better imbedded training system that allowed for IR and radar target simulation. However, the final MiG-29S improvement kit also provides for the Phazotron N-019M radar and more built-in test equipment (BITE) (especially for the radar) to reduce dependence on ground support equipment; MiG MAPO calls this model the MiG-29SD. Revised weapon system algorithms in the MiG-29S' software, combined with an increase in processing capacity, allows for the tracking of up to ten targets and the simultaneous engagement of two with the R-77 missile.
The MiG-29S also has a limited ground-attack capability with unguided munitions, but in order to transform the Fulcrum into a true multi-role fighter, MAPO designed the MiG-29SM variant with the improved avionics necessary to carry and employ precision-guided weapons. The 'SE/SD/SM' improvements in the MiG-29S, combined with the development money made available for the naval MiG-29K, gave MAPO the incentive to forge ahead with the multirole MiG-29M (aka MiG-33) "Super Fulcrum".
Flight performance of the 'Fulcrum-C' is but slightly reduced compared to the original 'Fulcrum-A' due to the weight of the additional fuel and avionics. Only 48 MiG-29S airframes were produced for the Russian VVS before funding was cut. Of this number, it is unknown how many are the standard air-superiority 'S' version and how many are the multi-role 'SM' version.
MiG-29 in German service
After the reunification of Germany in 1990, East Germany's MiG-29s were integrated into the German Luftwaffe as the MiG-29G, after upgrades by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (now EADS) for NATO compatibility. By 2003, Luftwaffe pilots had flown over 30,000 hours in the MiG-29. In September 2003, the 22 remaining machines were sold to the Polish Air Force for the symbolic price of ?1 per plane. . The Poles had also previously leased a MiG-29 from their own inventory to Israel for evaluation and the aircraft has since been returned to Poland.
The MiG-29 first saw action in the 1980s during the Iran-Iraq war, where unguided bombs and rockets were used to devastating effect. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, a Soviet MiG-29 shot down an Afghan Su-20 Fitter which had defected. In the following decade, MiG-29s saw combat in the Gulf War at the hands of Iraqi pilots, who were then thought to be among the best in the region after a decade of war and simmering tensions with Iran, over Serbia against a much larger force of Western aircraft, and in Eritrea against Ethiopian Su-27 Flankers. It has largely been unsuccessful in its combat encounters. However, it is generally believed that external factors such as inadequate pilot training skills, air-defense infrastructure, and poor maintenance, rather than the quality of the aircraft, are primarily responsible for this lack of success.
Many pundits such as the Federation of American Scientists recognize that in an individual dogfight, the MiG-29 is potentially better than the F-15 Eagle or F-16 Fighting Falcon. This was demonstrated in training combat situations, where the MiG-29s of the German Luftwaffe showed themselves to be somewhat superior when fighting in within-visual-range (WVR) engagements against Western F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 fighters. The MiG's success was partly due to its helmet-mounted "Archer" targeting system, which allowed German pilots to achieve a lock on any target the pilot could see, including aircraft far to the MiG's side or above it. In contrast, the U.S. aircraft were only able to lock onto targets in a narrow window directly in front of the aircraft's nose.
In the Iraqi and Serbian theaters, the U.S. and its allies had taken the initiative and established complete air superiority very early on, giving the MiG-29s little chance to respond and put up a challenge. In the Iran-Iraq War, the only Iraqi MiG-29 kill was the friendly-fire shoot down of another MiG-29. In another case of friendly fire, an Iraqi MiG-29 shot down a MiG-23 during the Gulf War. Eight MiG-29 pilots fled to Iran where the MiGs now serve in the Iranian Air Force. According to the U.S., its F-15s downed five MiG-29s in the war, most of which were reportedly trying to flee to Iran.
Serbian MiGs were 15 years old and deprived of spare parts due to the long arms embargo placed upon the country. Once thrown into battle, most were found to have some non-functioning systems that altered the plane's performance. Six (out of 14 + 2 trainers) were shot down, one combat-damaged (later placed as a decoy and destroyed on ground), and an additional 3 destroyed on the ground (10 altogether). One more was lost in an accident when its pilot, who survived, stalled his aircraft during a landing approach. Two Serbian pilots lost their lives in the war. The MiGs were also used in the Yugoslav Civil War, mostly in ground-attack missions.
A Cuban MiG-29 shot down two unarmed civilian Cessna 337s belonging to the organization Brothers to the Rescue in 1996.
In 1999 the Eritrean Air Force claimed four kills with their MiG-29s against Ethiopian MiG-21s and MiG-23s, while another kill against a MiG-21 was claimed in 2000. There were also claims of Ethiopian Su-27s shooting down five Eritrean MiG-29s. Russian and Ukrainian mercenary pilots reportedly flew combat missions in the conflict.
In Syrian service, the Fulcrums have provided round-the-clock air defense and patrol over Syria and Lebanon. Syrian pilots have praised the aircraft's agility and weapon systems. All of the Syrian pilots flying the MiG are highly experienced and are the best in the air force. Training is heavy and strong efforts are made to get the best out of aggressor training.
Indian MiG-29s saw action during the Kargil War in Kashmir. They provided fighter escort for Mirage 2000s dropping laser-guided bombs on enemy targets and played a major role in maintaining the air superiority. The Indian Fulcrums are known as Baaz (Eagle in Hindi). They were upgraded many times and are a match to many modern jets in all the fields. The IAF has modified and successfully tested their MiG-29s to fire the notorious R-77 Adder BVR missile. It is believed that all the Fulcrums in the IAF inventory are upgraded to use the Adder as a standard armament. They are also being worked upon to be compatible with the Indian Astra BVR missile that is being developed.
MiG-29s in the United States
The United States obtained 21 ex-Moldovan aircraft for evaluation and analysis. Fourteen of the Moldovan MiGs were the 'Fulcrum-C' model, which is equipped with an active radar jammer in its spine and is capable of being armed with nuclear weapons. There was a fear in the United States that these aircraft would be sold to Iran. The MiGs were delivered to the National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. One former Moldovan 'Fulcrum-C' is currently stored in a restoration hangar belonging to the National Museum of the United States Air Force. The fate of the other 20 former Moldovan MiG-29s is unknown, although they are believed to have been scrapped.
A private collector, Don Kirlin, has 2 MiG-29s that he purchased from Kyrgyzstan. They are supposedly lacking the avionics package, due to State Department restrictions. A U.S. avionics system would need to be sourced. They are currently located at the Quincy, Illinois airport. According to airport workers, Kirlin paid US$100,000 for both planes. The planes are currently not flightworthy and need a complete refurbishment. 
MiG-29s on display
A former Moldovan Air Force MiG-29 is currently stored in a restoration hangar at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio. There are no plans to place the aircraft on display in the near future.
A MiG-29 is on display at Goodfellow AFB in San Angelo, Texas.
Two MiG-29s are on display at Nellis AFB. One is at the outside of the Threat Training facility and another, in better shape, inside a hangar alongside a MiG-23
* MiG-29 "Fulcrum-A" (Product 9.12): Initial production version; entered service in 1983.
* MiG-29B-12 "Fulcrum-A" (Product 9.12A): Downgraded export version for non-Warsaw Pact nations. Lacked a nuclear weapon delivery system and possessed downgraded radar, ECM and IFF.
* MiG-29UB-12 "Fulcrum-B" (Product 9.51): Twin-seat training model. Lacks radar and GSh-30 cannon.
* MiG-29S-13 "Fulcrum-C" (Product 9.13): MiG-29 variant similar to the 9.12, but with an enlarged fuselage spine containing additional fuel and a Gardeniya active jammer.
* MiG-29S-13 "Fulcrum-C" (Product 9.13S): Version with the same airframe as the 9.13, but with an increased external weapons load of 4,000 kg, and provision for two underwing fuel tanks. Radar upgraded to N019ME, providing an ability to track 10 targets and engage 2 simultaneously. Compatible with the Vympel R-77 (AA-12 'Adder') air-to-air missile (similar to the AIM-120 AMRAAM).
* MiG-29SM "Fulcrum-C" (Product 9.13M): Similar to the 9.13, but with the ability to carry guided air-to-surface missiles and TV- and laser-guided bombs.
* MiG-29M / MiG-33 "Fulcrum-E" (Product 9.15): Advanced multi-role variant, with a redesigned airframe constructed from a lightweight aluminum-lithium alloy. Mechanical flight controls replaced by an analog fly-by-wire system. Powered by enhanced-thrust RD-33K engines, with 86 kN of thrust (in afterburner). Weapons load was increased to 4,500 kg, and additional fuel tanks were installed within the fuselage to give a total maximum range of 2,000 km (on internal fuel). Original radar replaced by N010 "Zhuk", providing ground-mapping capabilities and terrain-following flight modes. New "glass cockpit" displays, consisting of 2 cathode-ray-tube multi-function displays (MFDs). Added compatibility with the R-77 air-to-air missile and a wide range of guided air-to-ground munitions. Number of weapon hardpoints increased to 8 (4 under each wing). Originally intended as a replacement for earlier MiG-29 versions, but funding problems have prevented any MiG-29M purchases by the Russian Federation Air Force (VVS).
* MiG-29UBM (Product 9.61): Two-seat training variant of the MiG-29M. Never built.
* MiG-29SMT (Product 9.17): Upgrade of first-generation MiG-29s (9.12 to 9.13) containing many enhancements intended for the MiG-29M. Additional fuel tanks in a further enlarged spine provide a maximum flight range of 2,100 km (on internal fuel). Cockpit displays upgraded with 2 large liquid-crystal MFDs in full color and two smaller monochrome liquid-crystal displays (LCD). Upgraded N019MP radar provides additional air-to-ground modes and increased range. Engines intended for installation are RD-43 turbofans, providing up to 98.1 kN of thrust. Weapons load increased to 4,500 kg, with similar weapon choices as for the MiG-29M variant. This version is currently serving the air forces of Russia, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria.
* MiG-29K "Fulcrum-D" (Product 9.31): Naval variant, similar to the MiG-29M except with equipment such as folding wings, arrestor gear, and reinforced landing gear. Originally intended for the Admiral Kuznetsov-class aircraft carriers, but cancelled.
* MiG-29K "Fulcrum-D" (Product 9.41): Updated carrier-borne version intended for the Indian Navy. Based on the original 9.13, but with additional fuel tanks in the fuselage spine and a folding radome. Cockpit displays consist of liquid-crystal MFDs, and a new digital fly-by-wire system replaces the original analog system. Compatible with the full range of weapons carried by the MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT.
* MiG-29UBT (Product 9.51T): Similar to SMT upgrade, but for the MiG-29UB.
* MiG-29M2: Two-seat multi-role aircraft, utilizing the MiG-29M airframe (possibly based on the cancelled MiG-29UBM). Capabilities similar to the 9.15, but with LCD cockpit displays and digital flight controls. Proposed single-seat MiG-29M1 version remains unbuilt, but if constructed, it will likely be similar to the upgraded 9.41 MiG-29K.
* MiG-29OVT / MiG-35 "Fulcrum-F": Production version of the latest MiG-29 with the proven thrust-vectoring engine and fly-by-wire technology. The aircraft uses the same airframe as the MiG-29M1. The fighter is more agile and has an increase in range to 2,139 km (1,329 statute miles). With improved avionics, vast improvements in weapon systems, HOTAS systems, a wider range of air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons, as well as improved defensive and offensive avionics suites. It is no longer tied to the ground-controlled interception (GCI) system and would be able to conduct operations independently. It has eight weapon pylons and is able to refuel in mid-air as well as carry three external fuel tanks. The aircraft is being marketed under the designation MiG-35 for potential export. Russia is promoting the aircraft to various countries in the Middle East (namely Syria and Iran), in Africa (Algeria and Sudan), Latin America (Brazil and Peru), and India, to name a few. Malaysia is evaluating the type as a possible complement to its existing MiG-29B-12 'Fulcrums' and its new Su-30MKM 'Flankers' which are to be delivered in 2006.
* Algeria (76 aircraft), Bangladesh (8), Belarus (50), Bulgaria (16 MiG-29B + 4 MiG-29UB), Cuba (14 - most grounded), Eritrea (5), Hungary (21), India (63), Iran (50), Kazakhstan (40), Malaysia (16), Myanmar (12), North Korea (20?), Peru (18), Poland (45), Russia (455?), Serbia (5; MiG-29 operations to restart in 2007), Slovakia (13), Sudan (10), Syria (50), Turkmenistan (20), Ukraine (217), Uzbekistan (30) and Yemen (24).
* Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic, Germany, East Germany, Iraq, Moldova, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia.
Source: This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mikoyan MiG-29".
Length: 17.37 m (57 ft)
Wingspan: 11.4 m (37 ft 3 in)
Height: 4.73 m (15 ft 6 in)
Wing area: 38 m? (409 ft?)
Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,250 lb)
Loaded weight: 16,800 kg (37,000 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 21,000 kg (46,300 lb)
Powerplant: 2? Klimov RD-33K afterburning turbofans, 86.4 kN (20,725 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 2,445 km/h (1,518 mph)
Range: 700 km combat, 2,900 km ferry (430 mi / 1,800 mi)
Service ceiling: 18,013 m / 59 060 ft (59,100 ft)
Rate of climb: 330 m/s (65,000 ft/min)
Wing loading: 442 kg/m? (90.5 lb/ft?)
* 1x 30 mm GSh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds
* Up to 3,500 kg (7,720 lb) of weapons including 6 air-to-air missiles ? a mix of semi-active radar homing (SARH) and Molniya R-60 (AA-8 'Aphid'), Vympel R-27 (AA-10 'Alamo'), Vympel R-73 (AA-11 'Archer'), Vympel R-77 (AA-12 'Adder'), FAB 500-M62, FAB-1000, TN-100, ECM Pods, S-24, AS-12, AS-14.
* Phazotron N-109 radar
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